Nano particle size analysis in opaque suspensions basing on dynamic light scattering from 0.5 nm to 10,000 nm
In general, the acquisition of scattered light intensities of particles under thermal motion is deployed for nanoparticle characterisation (principle of dynamic light scattering (DLS)). NANOPHOX brings Photon Cross-correlation Spectroscopy (PCCS) to life, which allows for high resolution nanoparticle size analysis in high concentrated suspensions and emulsions ranging from 0.5 nm to 10,000 nm with minimum sample preparation. Nanoparticle size, size distribution and polydispersity are as reliably analysed with this method of dynamic light scattering as are the stability of dispersion.
The application of cross-correlation technology allows the calculation of the particle size distribution by eliminating the effect of multiple scattering. The amplitude of the cross-correlation function, which depends on the multiple scattering, provides direct measurement of changes in particle number and size. Differentiating measurements of agglomeration and sedimentation behaviour as well as about special effects like particle-particle interactions and changes in viscosity of high concentrated samples thus become feasible. NANOPHOX is ideally suited for research and development as well as for industrial quality control. Typical applications comprise polymer suspensions and emulsions, pharmaceutical emulsions, inks and research on nanomaterials in general. In pharmacy and biochemistry nanoparticles serve as API carriers or can be charged with molecules for targeted drug delivery.
The principle of dynamic light scattering traditionally is realised with Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) which uses auto-correlation of scattered light intensities in order to determine particle size distribution. However, this conventional technology requires extremely diluted samples in order to deliver meaningful results. The PCCS technology will help to eliminate the influence of multiple scattered light in principle. PCCS acquires two separately induced scattered light intensities. By the cross correlation of both signals the single scattered light, used for the correct calculation of the particle size distribtion, is filtered out from the multiple scattered light part. The single scattered light is thus separated from the multiple scattered light. Therefore a single scattering signal is sufficient to start the particle size analysis.
- Particle size and particle size distribution as well as stability behavior
- For nanoparticles in turbid suspensions and emulsions
- For analyses in research, development or quality laboratories
- Robust method for measuring range from 0.5 nm to 10,000 nm
- Samples concentration from 0.0001 Vol.-% to approx. 20 Vol.-%
- Concentration independent particle characterisation by elimination of multiple scattering effects | Reduction of sample preparation errors
- Insensitive to sample contamination
- High sensitivity for changes in size and measurement of bimodal distributions
- Solid-state measuring method for in-situ observation of changes in stability or size, e.g. growth and crystallisation processes
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NANOPHOX helps to reach the target quickly. Elaborate sample preparation is not required as even samples of high concentrations often need no dilution. The results are less sensitive against potential contaminations which for strongly diluted samples tend to significantly influence the particle distribution.
Automatic positioning of the cuvette and precise setting of the laser intensity for optimization of the measuring signal is straightforward and user-friendly, helping to make the measurement process fast and simple. NANOPHOX works with disposable vials made of acrylic glass. If there are special fluids or applications optical glass vials are available. For particularly small sample volumes of 50 µl a microcuvette Mikroküvette can be used.
NANOPHOX covers the vast particle size range of 0.5 nm to 10,000 nm. The size analysis is independent of concentration and masters high concentrations up to approximately 20 % by volume. Using a 30 mW semiconductor laser and Avalanche photo diodes minimum sample concentrations of just 10-4 % by volume are measurable. This remarkably broad concentration range is possible due to the combination of PCS and PCCS in a single instrument.
With a precisely controlled temperature range from 0°C to 90°C the behaviour of nanodispersions can be observed or influenced, respectively. NANOPHOX proves its specific performance for stability analysis of steric or electrostatic stabilising in high-concentrated nanodispersions. No matter if the particles have been stabilised with electric charges, polymers or surfactants, NANOPHOX reliably provides information on aggregation or agglomeration behaviour. Thus new opportunities for characterization in previously uncharted fields, such as particle-particle interactions and changes in dynamic viscosity, are easily accessible.
PAQXOS is the joint control and evaluation platform for all Sympatec systems. It combines our collective particle sizing expertise in a user-friendly application software which is realised as a network-ready 64-bit software for Windows® environments. A step-by-step wizard with built-in expert knowledge also leads the inexperienced user to successful measurements. PAQXOS provides graphical presentations, tables or paper reports that can be chosen from a variety of predefined and fully customisable formats. The intuitive graphical user interface supports the execution of reliable, meaningful measurements. The cross-correlation function, representing reproducibility and stability, is used to calculate the particle size distribution.
In addition to the classic 2nd Cumulant evaluation PAQXOS offers a distinctly more efficient Non Negative Least Square (NNLS) algorithm. The NNLS evaluation mode reliably presents polydisperse or bimodal samples with up to 256 size classes directly as volume or intensity based distribution. Characteristic values such as the arithmetic or harmonic mean values (xharm) of single modes are directly available. Our versatile PAQXOS software is ideally suited for demanding production and research applications.
An integrated scripting environment allows for the programming of elaborate routines to design repeat measurements in an efficient and reproducible manner. Furthermore, predefined measurement parameter settings may be implemented as binding Standard Operation Procedures | SOPs. Our software also meets the requirements of FDA-regulated pharmaceutical industries and provides all safety functions, access controls and authentication methods stipulated in regulation 21 CFR Part 11 regarding electronic records and electronic signatures to ensure data integrity and prevent manipulation of records.